Tampa Rubber and Gasket
Tampa Rubber Home PageTampa Rubber CatalogTampa Rubber Order FormTampa Rubber Line CardDirections to Tampa Rubber

TORQUE DATA

Torque Data
Intro Pic

Principles of Static Sealing

The Function of a Gasket
 
A gasket is used to create and retain a static seal between two stationary members of mechanical assemblies containing a wide variety of liquids or gases.
 
Gaskets are necessary and often vital to the satisfactory functioning of a broad range of industrial equipment. Hence, it is incumbent upon the gasket user to understand certain principles of sealing to select the correct gasket.
 
Gasket selection requires a knowledge of flange design, bolting data, dynamic forces and the behavior of gaskets when exposed to various temperatures, pressures and fluids.
 
Conditions that Occur in a Gasket Joint
 
In any dynamic mechanical assembly employing a gasket, a combination of forces act upon the gasketed joint. The net effect can be described, figuratively, as a battle between the gasket and the internal forces acting to penetrate or displace it.
 
The performance of any gasket is influenced by the following variables:
  • THE INTERNAL PRESSURE:
    Internal pressure is the force continually trying to unseal a gasketed joint by exerting force against the gasket (blowout pressure) and against the flanges holding the gasket in place (hydrostatic end force). See picture above.
  • THE FLANGE LOAD:
    Flange load is the net force compressing the gasket to create a seal which results from subtracting the hydrostatic end force from the total bolt load.
     
  • FLUID:
    The liquid or gas against which the gasket is to seal. Gases are generally more difficult to seal than liquids.
     
  • TEMPERATURE:
    Temperature relates to the effects of heat or cold on the gasket, flange and bolts. Temperature creates thermo-mechanical effects, expanding or contracting the metals. The temperature can also affect the gasket by causing creep relaxation or other thermal degradation. The creep relaxation effectively causes a reduction in the flange load.
    The degrading effect of many fluids on gaskets increases as temperature rises. As a rule, the higher the temperature, the more critical the selection of the proper gasket.
     
  • GENERAL CONDITIONS:
    These conditions are the type of flange, the flange surfaces, the type of bolt material, the spacing and tightness of the bolts, etc.



Types of Flange Faces

Unconfined Gaskets
Flat Face
Flange
Flat Face Flange
Mating faces of both flanges are flat. Gaskets may be ring type, entirely inside of the bolts, or the full face type, covering essentially the entire face with holes punched for bolt clearance.
Raised Face
Flange
Raised Face Flange
Mating face is flat, but a portion inside of the bolt holes is raised 1/16" or 1/4". The gasket is usually a ring type, entirely within the bolts. Steel flanges that are to mate with cast-iron should have flat faces, to prevent breaking the cast-iron flange during bolt tightening.
Lapped Joint
Flange
Lapped Joint Flange
The facing is similar to the raised face type of flange. This connection is generally used when the process requires alloy piping, but the flanges may be made from a less exotic metal.

Confined & Semi-Confined Gaskets
Tongue & Groove
Flange
Tongue & Groove Flange
The depth of the groove is generally equal to or less then the height of the tongue. The groove is not normally over 1/16" wider than the tongue. The joint must be pried open at disassembly. However, tongue & groove flanges do produce a high pressure on the gasket.
 Ring Gasket Joint
Flange
Ring Gasket Joint Flange
Both flanges have matching flat bottom grooves with the sides tapered from the vertical. The gasket is machined from solid metal and is either oval or octagonal in cross section.
Male - Female
Flange
Male - Female Flange
The depth of the recessed face is normally equal to or less than the height of the male or raised face, to prevent the possibility of flanges coming together when the gasket is compressed.
Male - Female
Flange
Male - Female Flange
This type of flange confines the gasket, usually an O-ring to the inside diameter of the flange.
Flat & Groove
Flange
Flat & Groove Flange
This is a metal-to-metal type of joint, with the gasket confined in a groove. The gasket is usually thicker than the depth of the groove.

Flange Design

BASIC FLANGE DESIGN:
While a detailed discussion of flange design is beyond the scope of this section, understanding basic flange features is essential to the selection of a gasket.
There are many recognized standard flange designs, such as those defined by ANSI, MSS, API and AWWA. ANSI Standard B16.5 currently is the most widely recognized and used. These standard flange designs are employed for piping in preference to custom designs, such as those based on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code guidelines.
 
FLANGE FACING TYPES:
Examples of flange types are shown in the pictures above. The raised face design is most commonly used. The flat face design is normally used with flanges that are easily fractured or crushed. Male & female small, tongue & groove small, ring gasket joint and metal to metal designs are not suitable for most non-metallic gasket material.



Types of Flange Finishes

Concentric Serrated
Flange
Concentric Serrated Flange
Phonograph Finish
Flange
Phonograph Finish Flange
Carbon Paper Print of
Contact Pressure Distribution
Carbon Paper Print of Contact Pressure Distribution

Flange Surface Finishes

While the majority of flange materials are metallic, non-metallic flanges, such as glass or reinforced plastic, are now being used.
 
Metallic flange surfaces may range from a rough casting to that produced by machine lapping, and each type of surface influences sealing effectiveness. Surface roughness is usually measured in micro-inches (micrometers) as an Arithmetic Average Roughness Height (AARH) or Root Mean Square (RMS). The former method is currently preferred.
 
Commonly used finishes for pipe flanges for non-metallic gaskets are the serrated-concentric and serrated-spiral (phonograph) finishes. Both finishes are usually made with tools of similar shape and the flange faces are cut to various depths, depending upon the metal. Both serrated finishes consist of a series of cuts, whose width also varies with the type of metal.
 
The serrated-spiral finish is spirally cut, with a continuous spiral groove extending from the bore of the flange to the outer perimeter (see pictures above). The serrated-concentric finish has definite "hills and valleys", each endless.
 
"Smooth" finishes which appear to have no surface irregularities are also quite common. When microscopically viewed, the face presents a different picture. The "smooth" finish has wavy contours and slight surface irregularities, which cannot be sealed by naked face-to-face flange contact, and a gasket is an essential requirement.
 
There are general rules applicable to surface finishes:
  • 1. The flange surface finish has a definite effect on the sealing effectiveness.
  • 2. A minimum seating stress ("y" factor) must be reached in order to flow the gasket material into the irregularities of the gasket surface. A softer gasket (i. e. cork), requires less seating stress than a denser gasket (i. e. compressed material). The total force required to flow the material is proportional to the area of the gasket.
  • 3. Bolting force may be lowered by reducing the gasket area or the flange contact area. The difference is primarily a relationship of force to area.
  • 4. The closer together the ridge surfaces of a serrated-concentric finish and the shallower the grooves, the more the flange area begins to resemble a smooth face flange, and hence there is greater contact area. Higher bolt loading is required to seat the gasket. The opposite effect occurs as the ridges span wider.
  • 5. A serrated-spiral finish is more difficult to seal than a serrated-concentric finish. Complete flow of gasket material must reach the "valley" surface in a spiral finish, otherwise a leak path will exist from one end of the spiral to the other end.
  • 6. Since gasket materials vary in hardness or resistance to flow, selection of the proper material and thickness is important in relationship to the flange finish.
  • 7. Serrated finishes are generally associated with pipe flange assemblies, whereas "smooth" finishes are likely to be found in flanged joints other than pipe flange assemblies.

Bolting & Flange Forces

In most flanges, the distribution of force around the gasket is usually not the same at all points. For example, two large diameter bolts could supply the same force as 12 smaller diameter bolts, but the distribution of force would be poor. Therefore, to equalize as near as possible the distribution of the load on a gasket, the greater number of properly spaced bolts should be used.
 
As bolts are torqued, the result is a compressive load on the flange and gasket; however, the gasket area surrounding the bolts undergoes greater compression while the lowest compression on the gasket occurs mid-way between the bolts due to flange bowing (see picture above: "Contact Pressure").
 
A basic question to be considered in any gasket application is whether there is enough bolting force to create a final, enduring seal. An initial step is the design of adequate bolt load on the gasket as it is being installed, to insure flange / gasket conformity. This load, as already mentioned, is the minimum seating stress. Its numerical value ("y" factor) is dependent on the gasket material itself, as well as its thickness and contour. Soft materials, such as cellulose fiber or a low durometer rubber, do not require nearly the stress that harder materials do, such as compressed materials. To assure an adequate seal at operating pressure, an additional preload on the gasket may be required. This preload, the maintenance or "m" factor, also is dependent on the gasket material. Thus, in designing a joint, both the "y" and "m" factors should be obtained from the gasket manufacturer.



Bolt Load Calculations

Practical assembling of a gasketed flange requires tightening of a series of bolts to affect the required compressive load. Ideally, the amount of gasket compression used is to assure that minimum gasket factors and seating stresses are achieved.
 
Usually, the bolts must be torqued to assure that the minimum initial assembly stress (S) is achieved. The calculation for S takes into account the hydrostatic end thrust (H), the gasket factor "m" and the minimum seating stress "y".
Diameter
of Bolt
Threads
per Inch
Alloy Steel Stud Bolts
Coarse Threads
Ft.-Lbs.In.-Lbs.
1/4"20896
5/16"1816192
3/8"1624288
7/16"1440480
1/2"1360720
9/16"12901080
5/8"111201440
3/4"102002400
 
S = y + mI + H/A
Where: I = internal pressure
            A = area of gasket under compression
            H = hydrostatic end thrust
            a = area enclosed by mean dimension of the gasket
 
Since: H = I x a,
Then: S = y + mI + Ia/A
After the minimum assembly stress, S, is calculated and the proper bolt spacing is established, the minimum torque per bolt, t, can be calculated:
t = S x A x D x 0.2/N
Where 0.2 = factor for loss due to friction
            A = gasket area
            D = bolt diameter
            N = number of bolts
Each bolt can only be torqued to a maximum limit. Exceeding this limit would stretch the bolt beyond its yield point (the point at which it is permanently deformed), or possibly strip the threads beyond usefulness.
Care must also be exercised so that over-torquing does not distort the flanges so that they are out of parallel. Listed in the table above are Torque Data, which show the limits to which alloy steel bolts and studs may be subjected for those grades shown by manufacturers with a yield point above 70,000 PSI.
To determine the flange load on the gasket, the following formula applies:
Approximate flange load (gasket seating stress) =
N x T/0.2 x D x A
Where: N = number of bolts
            T = maximum torque (in.-lbs.)
            D = diameter of bolt (in.)
            A = area of gasket (in2.)
            0.2 = factor for friction
It must be cautioned that flange load calculations are only approximate. Dry bolts require greater torquing effort than lubricated bolts, since there is an exceptional amount of friction to overcome. Heavier flanges, higher yield bolts, etc., are all significant in arriving at an accurate flange load value. Use the formula only as a guide.
It must also be re-stated that flanges are specifically designed for certain pressure and temperature applications and that obtaining the initial seal is only one part of the gasketing story. There other conditions to consider before a selection is made.



Proper Bolting

Proper Bolting

The sequence in which bolts are tightened has a substantial bearing upon the distribution of the contact area stress. Improper bolting may move the flange out of parallel. A gasket will usually compensate for a small amount of distortion of this type, but serious difficulties may be encountered if close paralleling is not maintained.
 
Correct bolting procedures are shown in the picture above. Following the recommended procedure, these rules should be observed:
  • 1. Lubricate bolts and washers.
  • 2. Tighten bolts by hand first, following the pattern.
  • 3. If using a torque wrench, set the wrench at about ½ the final torque for the first go around, following the bolting pattern. For highly loaded bolts, more steps are required.
It is important that final tightening be uniform with each bolt pulling the same load.
Note: It is important for proper sealing that the flanges are clean and free of any serious defects.



The Seal

CREATING THE INITIAL SEAL
A seal is effected by compressing and forcing the gasket material into the imperfection of the joint. A tight, unbroken barrier occurs, leaving no interface pathway for escape of the confined fluid.
It is the gasket surface only that does the sealing. The body of the gasket essentially provides the elastic, resilient properties. It is true that there are gasketing materials which may exhibit porosity, i.e., leakage, through the body of the gasket under certain conditions. A good seal is often obtained, particularly for elastomeric gasketing materials, through "swell" of the gasket in contact with the fluid it is sealing. A certain amount of swell is desirable, provided the swell reaches a stage of equilibrium and is not a degradation process signaling the breakdown of the gasket material.
 
CONSIDERATIONS TO MINIMIZE TORQUE LOSS
One of the first considerations for minimizing torque loss is choice of gasketing material. Some materials have inherently less creep relaxation than others and are less subject to torque loss. For most materials the factors listed below also influence torque retention.
  • 1. Generally, the thinner the gasket, the better its performance. A 1/64" thick gasket compared to a 1/8" gasket of the same material will reduce torque loss proportionally more than the straight line difference in thickness for most materials. However, though a thinner gasket is more economical and limits torque loss and creep relaxation, it must be cautioned that a switch from thicker to thinner gaskets may not be feasible. In flanges which distort, are not perfectly flat and rigid, or have pitted and marred faces, sealing may be adversely affected. The gasket must be thick enough to assure that the required sealing stress is effected along the entire gasket surface.
  • 2. Usually, the denser the gasket the getter its torque retention properties. Caution must be exercised since denser materials require greater seating stress to seal, and light flanges may not be adequately sealed by turning to a denser material.
  • 3. It has been fount that increasing the total bolt load tends to reduce the adverse effects of stress relaxation.
Greater torque losses will invariably occur in flange-bolt materials of dissimilar metals, primarily due to the thermo-mechanical effects of the metals. For example, an aluminum top flange bolted to a steel bottom flange will each expand at a different rate as temperature increases. Aluminum has a coefficient of expansion roughly two times that of steel. Expansion and contraction upon heating and cooling will produce a greater physical movement than the gasket can accommodate or which may cause severe deformation and plastic flow of the gasket itself. Sealability is therefore in jeopardy.
 
LUBRICATING, BOLTING & WASHERS
Further, minimizing of torque loss may be obtained through refinement of hardware holding the flange together. As a rule, the higher the initial gasket load the less torque loss occurs. To obtain a higher torque load, the following alternatives can be considered:
  • 1. Adequately lubricating the mating parts, threads, nuts washers and underside of bolt heads to reduce friction.
  • 2. Selecting bolts of a superior alloy which have a higher yield; however, only to the extent that the flange would not be distorted by excessive torquing.
  • 3. Using a conical washer instead of a flat washer, the following results should occur:
    (a) it lengthens the bolts to a slight degree, thereby allowing for more bolt elongation.
    (b) the washer has an elastic effect, and will partly compensate for some of the gasket resilience loss.
RETAINING THE INITIAL SEAL
Obtaining a good gasket seal on the first go around doesn't necessarily insure against gasket failure. The function of a gasket is to seal and retain its seal in operation. Replacing a "leaker" in a relatively inaccessible gasket location may result in considerable expense and downtime. Even proper flange design, adequate bolting and sound installation practice do not always insure against the subtle changes that take place in a gasketing joint once in service. Changes in addition to creep relaxation of the gasketing material itself may adversely affect the seal. Due to fatigue, heat, mechanical vibration (the total dynamic process affecting the flange unit), or chemical attack the gasket material may undergo physical changes that may reduce its resilience that the total bolt load holding the gasket in place may drop below the force required to maintain a seal. In such cases leakage occurs.
 
TEMPERATURE EFFECTS
The effects of temperature lead to the classification of materials as to torque retention as shown in the table below. Under ambient conditions, most gasket materials will not show any significant torque loss. As temperature rises above 200 degrees Fahrenheit, torque loss becomes a serious consideration and requires a gasket material which will be minimally affected. If the gasket material is suitable for the temperature, re-torquing at room temperature may compensate for torque loss. Studies have shown that most torque loss occurs within 24 hours at temperatures above 200º F. However, re-torquing adjustments are not always feasible or desirable, and the gasket user should select the gasket material with the most suitable torque retention characteristics. As shown in the table below, flexible graphite is the most temperature resistant gasket material, with compressed asbestos the best of elastomeric bonded materials under extreme conditions. This statement should not be interpreted to mean that similar performances for all types and grades of compressed asbestos can be expected. The stress relaxation qualities even among this one class of materials is variable. Only tests and the experience of the gasket manufacturer or user will determine the most desirable.
Gasket
Material
Maximum
Temperature
Rank in Order of
Torque Retention
Flexible Graphite5400º F *1
Compressed Asbestos650 / 1000º F2
Compressed Non-Asbestos600 / 750º F3
Asbestos Beater Addition450 / 650º F4
Non-Asbestos Beater Addition350 / 750º F3-4
Expanded PTFE500º F5
Vegetable Fiber250º F6
Rubber (Chloroprene / SBR)212 / 250º F7
Cork-Rubber250º F8
Cork Composition250º F9
* = Non-oxidizing environment
Notes:
1. Non-asbestos compressed and beater addition exhibit a wider range of torque retention values than asbestos counterparts.
2. For specific service temperatures, consult the manufacturer.
 
Numerically rated from 1 to 10, indicating comparative torque retention, i.e., "1" is best, "10" is worst.

line

GO TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

GO TO MAIN PAGE

line

Tampa Rubber & Gasket Co., Inc.

215 North 20th Street
Tampa, FL, USA 33605
Ph-813-247-3647 Fax-813-247-3180
Toll Free-800-940-4673 E-Mail - The Post Office
Visa Mastercard
American Express Discover
We accept Visa, Mastercard, American Express & Discover


Validated!
click here

w3c Validated
COPYRIGHT © 1998-2004 TAMPA RUBBER & GASKET CO., INC.